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By Nader Hassanzadeh

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31 Plasmid carrying many antibiotic-resistance genes From S. N. Cohen and J. ” Copyright © 1980 by Scientific American, Inc. 32 3. Bacteriophages Temperate/virulent 33 Structure of a bacteriophage 34 Bacteriophage (l) 35 T4 bacteriophage head capsid Equatorial volume view of DNA packing DNA packing shown by thin slice of volume 36 Bacteriophage 37 4. Transposable elements   Transposons Insertion sequences (IS) Transposable elements have become valuable mutagenic tools for genetic and molecular analysis in many different bacteria.

Insertion sequences      Pieces of DNA that can move in the chromosome. Insertion can cause mutations of a gene or a whole operon. Vehicles are often plasmids and phages. Flanked by inverted repeats (IR). Inner fragment codes for a transposase. 42 Insertion sequences 43 Insertion sequences    Insertion Sequences or IS elements are the simplest mobile element. They consist of a fairly short (700-1500 bp) DNA segment flanked by a 10-40 bp inverted repeat sequence. The segment codes for the protein (transposase) that catalyses the transposition event: Martin E.

EZ::TN Transposome insertions have been demonstrated for a number of species, including Escherichia, X. fastidiosa, Pseudomonas. 53 3. Composite transposons      Composite transposons are DNA segments that are flanked by an IS element at either end. In other words, instead of each IS element moving independently, they now act in concert and move together along with the intervening DNA. Each IS element is a typical IS element although only one of the two elements typically retains a functional transposase activity.

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Bacteria Genetics by Nader Hassanzadeh

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