By Rachel Kranz
The most debatable political problems with the earlier 3 a long time has been the query of affirmative motion. The word used to be first utilized in 1965 whilst President Lyndon B. Johnson issued government Order 11246, which referred to as upon government-funded contractors to "take affirmative motion" to make sure that candidates have been hired with out regard to race, colour, faith, or nationwide foundation. Affirmative motion continues to be a major and emotionally charged political factor in society this present day. Affirmative motion, a brand new identify within the Library in a publication sequence, serves because the perfect start line for study in this hotly contested subject. providing a dispassionate, even-handed review, this e-book presents the newest precis of its felony, political, and social points, delivering scholars and researchers an impartial examine the topic. assurance contains: The heritage of legalized inequality within the usa, from the Civil struggle to the current; a number of positions at the factor of affirmative motion; info on significant arenas during which affirmative motion performs a task, equivalent to vote casting rights, university admissions, and employment; Key complaints, laws, government orders, and referendums on affirmative motion; short biographies of key contributors eager about affirmative motion, together with activists, politicians, and criminal students; A word list of comparable political, criminal, and different phrases; a list of corporations and companies with regards to affirmative motion; designated appendixes, together with excerpts from key complaints.
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Extra resources for Affirmative Action (Library in a Book)
Neither test was speciﬁcally created in response to the requirements of working at Duke Power. Title VII includes a provision for bringing class-action suits—suits brought by a group of people claiming that they have all been affected by the same problem. So 13 of the 14 African Americans working at the Dan River plant brought a class-action suit in district court, claiming that the company was discriminating against them through the tests and the high school diploma requirement. ) They claimed that these requirements had nothing to do with whether a worker could perform a job at the plant but were simply ways of keeping African Americans segregated in the lowest-paying department.
Bowman is typical of the early days of affirmative action decisions, when the Court tended to support claims of discrimination and call for significant remedies. As in other early decisions, the burden is on the employer to justify or explain apparent discrimination, and if the employer cannot do so, he or she is liable for back pay and the restoration of benefits. In this and other cases of the late 1970s and early 1980s, the Court saw Title VII’s intent as being a total end to discrimination in the workplace, a goal that should be achieved by making employers clearly responsible for integrating their workforces, with significant penalties if they did not.
The principles behind this act were soon written into the Constitution as the Fourteenth Amendment. During the Reconstruction era after the Civil War, numerous other civil rights laws were passed, many of which are still in force today. These laws were intended to protect individuals from discrimination and from being deprived of their civil rights. For example, Section 1981 of Title 42 (Equal Rights under the Law) protects individuals from discrimination based on race in making and enforcing contracts, participating in lawsuits, and giving evidence.
Affirmative Action (Library in a Book) by Rachel Kranz