By Colin Brown
This succinct paintings of background charts the expansion of Indonesia, a amazing kingdom of greater than 6,000 inhabited islands. With lucid originality, the textual content comprises greater than 2 million years of background with intensity and brevity-particularly targeting Indonesia's improvement right into a microcosm of a multi-ethnic smooth global. Many present issues are perceptively addressed, comparable to the legacy of European-Asian exchange, Dutch colonialism, and the emergence of what has develop into the most important Muslim inhabitants on the earth.
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Additional info for A Short History of Indonesia: The Unlikely Nation?
By early in the sixteenth century, all of them had substantial communities of people from the Indian subcontinent, Persia and the Middle East, and important roles were played in virtually all of them by Muslims from other parts of Asia. Given their later and highly equivocal position in Indonesian society, it is useful to note in particular that by the sixteenth century there were also substantial numbers of people of Chinese descent, or mixed Chinese-Javanese descent, residing in the ports of Java (and in many other islands of the archipelago).
He also had imperial ambitions, seeking to establish his authority over much, if not all of the archipelago. Under his rule, Singasari’s forces extended the state’s influence eastward into Bali and westward to the Straits of Melaka, taking advantage of the decline of Srivijaya. The Straits were largely under Singasari’s control by 1286. Unfortunately this westward expansion brought Singasari into conflict with the Chinese, who were pushing into the Straits at the same time and for much the same reasons: the decay of Srivijaya and the subsequent absence of any hegemonic power which could guarantee the continuation of peaceful trade.
In 1289 the Mongol emperor Kublai Khan, seeing China’s influence in the Straits threatened by Singasari, sent emissaries to Java to demand tribute from Kertanegara. Kertanegara refused to pay, and sent the Chinese emissaries home, reputedly after having cut off their noses and ears—though whether this is literally what happened, or whether it simply means that the envoys were ritually humiliated, is unclear. In any event, in 1292 Kublai Khan responded by sending a military expedition comprising as many as 1000 vessels and 20 000 soldiers to Java to enforce collection of the tribute.
A Short History of Indonesia: The Unlikely Nation? by Colin Brown